The The global financial and economic crisis It has led many countries to cut back on all kinds of public spending, yet military spending has continued to increase. Only in 2012 a decrease in global military spending was observed – and it was a small drop. How can continuous spending be justified in such an era?
Before the crisis, many countries had either high economic growth or easy access to credit without any knowledge of what was going to happen.
A group of factors explained the increase in military spending in recent years before the economic crisis as in the past SIPRI The reports also indicated, for example, that:
- foreign policy goals
- Real or perceived threats
- Armed conflict and the politics of contributing to multilateral peacekeeping operations
- Availability of economic resources
The last point refers to rapidly developing countries such as China and India that have experienced an economic boom in recent years. In addition, high and rising global market prices for minerals and fossil fuels (at least until recently) have enabled some countries to spend more on their militaries.
China, for the first time, ranked second in spending in 2008.
But even in the wake of the financial crisis amid cries to cut back on the government, military spending seemed to have survived. for example,
For many in Western Europe or the United States at the height of the financial crisis, it may have been easy to forget
my world The financial crisis, was essentially a Western financial crisis (albeit with global resonance). So this helps explain why military spending is not reduced immediately as one might think otherwise. Like SIPRI Explain:
- Some countries such as China and India did not experience deflation, but instead enjoyed economic growth
- Most developed countries (and some larger developing countries) boosted public spending to counteract the recession with large economic stimulus packages. Military spending, though not a large part of it, was part of the general public spending interest (some would also call it that
- Geopolitics and strategic interests remain factors for projecting or maintaining power:
The increased military spending of the United States, as the sole superpower, and of other major powers or intermediaries, such as Brazil, China, Russia and India, appears to be a strategic choice in its long-term quest for global and regional influence; They might hate going without it, even in tough economic timesAnd SIPRI Add.
As for the military spending of the USA in 2012, for example, although it decreased, it was mainly related to spending on the war (primarily the Iraq and Afghanistan operations). But the basic defense budget, in comparison, is very similar to other years (indicating a decrease in rate of increase spending).
On the contrary,
When it comes to smaller countries—which lack such ambitions in power and, more importantly, lack the resources and creditworthiness to run such large budget deficits—many cut their military spending in 2009, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. (Pirlo Freeman, Ishmael and Slimerano, pp. 1-2)
Natural resources have also driven military spending and arms imports in the developing world. An increase in oil prices means more for oil-exporting countries.
Curse of natural resources It has long been as a phenomenon where nations, despite the abundance of rich resources, find themselves in conflict and tension due to the struggle of forces that these resources bring (internal and external influences are all part of this).
In their previous report for 2006 The Stockholm Institute noted that Algeria, Azerbaijan, Russia and Saudi Arabia were able to increase spending due to increased oil and gas revenues, while the increases in Chile and Peru were driven by resources,
Because their military spending is de jure tied to profits from the exploitation of key natural resources.
China and India, the two emerging economic powers in the world, are showing a sustained increase in their military spending and are contributing to the growth of global military spending. In absolute terms, their current spending is only a fraction of that of the United States. Their increases are largely proportional to their economic growth.
The Military Expenditure Database from SIPRI As it appears while percentage The increases over the past decade may be significant for some countries, and their total spending amounts may vary.
(See also this Summary of recent trends, also from SIPRI. The most recent figures used by SIPRI are from 2012 and, where necessary (eg China and Russia), include estimates.)